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Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts Issues

Volumes 1 - 5 were published under the journal name "Shidler Journal of Law, Commerce + Technology".

Volume 8

Issue 5 Spring 2013

ArticleTitleAuthor
543 Bidding on Trademarked Keywords in Search Engines: A Trademark Law Update

 In March 2011, the Ninth Circuit modified the list of the most relevant factors for courts to consider when evaluating whether a business’s keyword bid on a competitor’s trademark causes a likelihood of confusion under the Lanham Act. Over ten years earlier, in Brookfield Communications v. West Coast Entertainment, the Ninth Circuit had held that using a competitor’s trademark in a website metatag for the purpose of achieving a more prominent place in search results creates “initial interest confusion” for consumers in violation of the Lanham Act. TheBrookfield opinion formed what became known as the “Internet troika” test: a three-factor test for evaluating initial interest confusion in Internet cases. In a 2011 case,Network Automation, Inc. v. Advanced Systems Concepts, Inc., the Ninth Circuit reversed a lower court decision that applied the Internet troika test and held that the test fails to discern whether there is a likelihood of confusion in keywords cases. Instead, the Ninth Circuit adopted a new four-factor test for analyzing the likelihood of confusion in keyword bidding cases: (1) the strength of the mark, (2) the evidence of actual confusion, (3) the type of goods and degree of care likely to be exercised by the purchaser, and (4) the labeling and appearance of the advertisements and surrounding context on the page displaying the results. This Article examines the new four-factor test and discusses the importance of theNetwork Automation decision in affirming the legality, in most instances, of bidding on trademarked keywords in Google and Bing search engine advertising.

full article

Ryan Baker
555 Prometheus v. Mayo: Limited Implications for § 101 Jurisprudence

abstract   full article

Jessica Belle
573 What Is the Media in the Age of the Internet? Defamation Law and the Blogosphere

abstract   full article

Lauren Guicheteau
587 Update Needed? Digital Downloaders and the Innocent Infringer Defense

abstract   full article

Colin Conerton

Issue 4 Winter 2013

ArticleTitleAuthor
457 What Your Tweet Doesn’t Say: Twitter, Non-Content Data, and the Stored Communications Act

abstract   full article

Daniel Shickich
473 When Is a Phone a Computer?

abstract   full article

J.C. Lundberg
487 Unchaining E-Discovery in the Patent Courts

abstract   full article

Daniel B. Garrie, Esq. and Yoav M. Griver, Esq.
501 Personalized Medicine, Genetic Exceptionalism, and the Rule of Law: An Analysis of the Prevailing Justification for Invalidating BRCA1/2 Patents in Association of Molecular Pathology v. USPTO

abstract   full article

Kristen L. Burge

Issue 3 Mobile Money Symposium 2013

ArticleTitleAuthor
155 Introduction to Mobile Money in Developing Countries: Financial Inclusion and Financial Integrity Conference Special Issue

abstract   full article

Jane K. Winn and Louis de Koker
165 The 2012 Revised FATF Recommendations: Assessing and Mitigating Mobile Money Integrity Risks Within the New Standards Framework

abstract   full article

Louis de Koker
197 Governance of Global Mobile Money Networks:The Role of Technical Standards

abstract   full article

Jane K. Winn
245 Privacy and Security Concerns Associated with Mobile Money Applications in Africa

abstract   full article

Andrew Harris, Seymour Goodman, and Patrick Traynor
265 The Role of UNCITRAL Texts in Promoting a Harmonized Legal Framework for Cross-Border Mobile Payments

abstract   full article

Luca G. Castellani
285 Mobile Money as an Engine of Financial Inclusion and Lynchpin of Financial Integrity

abstract   full article

Claire Alexandre and Lynn Chang Eisenhart
303 The Role of Anti-Money Laundering Law in Mobile Money Systems in Developing Countries

abstract   full article

Emery S. Kobor
317 Mobile Money, Financial Inclusion and Financial Integrity: The South African Case

abstract   full article

Vivienne A. Lawack
347 M-Payments in Brazil: Notes on How a Country’s Background May Determine Timing and Design of a Regulatory Model

abstract   full article

Gilberto Martins de Almeida
375 Safaricom and M-PESA in Kenya: Financial Inclusion and Financial Integrity

abstract   full article

Mercy W. Buku and Michael W. Meredith
401 Reporting of Suspicious Activity by Mobile Money Service Providers in Accordance with International Standards: How Does it Impact on Financial Inclusion?

abstract   full article

Miriam Goldby
419 Mobile Payments In The United States: How Disintermediation May Affect Delivery of Payment Functions, Financial Inclusion and Anti-Money Laundering Issues

abstract   full article

Erin F. Fonté

Issue 2 Fall 2012

ArticleTitleAuthor
79 Whose Invention Is It Anyway? Employee Invention-Assignment Agreements and Their Limits

abstract   full article

Parker A. Howell
107 Social Media Policies for Character and Fitness Evaluations

abstract   full article

Jessica Belle
123 Googling Jurors to Conduct Voir Dire

abstract   full article

J.C. Lundberg
137 Get Outta My Face[book]: The Discoverability of Social Networking Data and the Passwords Needed to Access Them

abstract   full article

Mallory Allen & Aaron Orheim

Issue 1 Summer 2012

ArticleTitleAuthor
1 Finding Safe Harbor: Navigating Washington's New Unfair Competition Law

abstract   full article

Daniel Shickich
29 Facebook Firings and Twitter Terminations: The National Labor Relations Act as a Limit on Retaliatory Discharge

abstract   full article

Bryan Russell
43 Technology, Travel Companies & Taxation: Should Expedia Be Required to Collect and Remit State Occupancy Taxes on Profits from Facilitating Hotel Room Rentals?

abstract   full article

Kerra J. Melvin
61 Who Are You? Difficulties in Obtaining Trademark Protection for Domain Names

abstract   full article

Luke M. Rona